Glomerular Endothelial Mitochondrial Dysfunction Is Essential and Characteristic of Diabetic Kidney Disease Susceptibility

The molecular signaling mechanisms between glomerular cell types during initiation/progression of diabetic kidney disease (DKD) remain poorly understood. We compared the early transcriptome profile between DKD-resistant C57BL/6J and DKD-susceptible DBA/2J (D2) glomeruli and demonstrated a significant downregulation of essential mitochondrial genes in glomeruli from diabetic D2 mice, but not in C57BL/6J, with comparable hyperglycemia. Diabetic D2 mice manifested increased mitochondrial DNA lesions (8-oxoguanine) exclusively localized to glomerular endothelial cells after 3 weeks of diabetes, and these accumulated over time in addition to increased urine secretion of 8-oxo-deoxyguanosine. Detailed assessment of glomerular capillaries from diabetic D2 mice demonstrated early signs of endothelial injury and loss of fenestrae. Glomerular endothelial mitochondrial dysfunction was associated with increased glomerular endothelin-1 receptor type A (Ednra) expression and increased circulating endothelin-1 (Edn1). Selective Ednra blockade or mitochondrial-targeted reactive oxygen species scavenging prevented mitochondrial oxidative stress of endothelial cells and ameliorated diabetes-induced endothelial injury, podocyte loss, albuminuria, and glomerulosclerosis. In human DKD, increased urine 8-oxo-deoxyguanosine was associated with rapid DKD progression, and biopsies from patients with DKD showed increased mitochondrial DNA damage associated with glomerular endothelial EDNRA expression. Our studies show that DKD susceptibility was linked to mitochondrial dysfunction, mediated largely by Edn1–Ednra in glomerular endothelial cells representing an early event in DKD progression, and suggest that cross talk between glomerular endothelial injury and podocytes leads to defects and depletion, albuminuria, and glomerulosclerosis.

Diabetes Complications

Glomerular Endothelial Mitochondrial Dysfunction Is Essential and Characteristic of Diabetic Kidney Disease Susceptibility was first posted on March 2, 2017 at 12:16 pm.
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Amrita Wellness Medicine Clinic

Alina Porojan has been working as a natural medicine practitioner for the past twelve years, constantly educating herself and deepening her knowledge and clinical experience. Alina believes that health and healing is inherent to each of us, and sees her role as re-connecting us to our already existing potential for optimal health and wellness.